Macular degeneration that affects the elderly in either a slowly progressing form marked especially by the accumulation of yellow deposits in and thinning of the macula lutea or in a rapidly progressing form marked by scarring produced by bleeding and fluid leakage below the macula lutea. 1
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a degenerative brain disease of unknown cause that is the most common form of dementia. AD usually starts as a memory loss for recent events spreading to memories for more distant events and progressing over the course of five to ten years.
An organic compound containing an amino group and a carboxyl group which functions as one of the building blocks of protein.
The 20 amino acids are alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and valine. 2
Any of various substances (as beta-carotene, vitamin C, and alpha-tocopherol) that inhibit oxidation or reactions promoted by oxygen and that include many held to protect the living body from the deleterious effects of free radicals. 1
A crystalline basic amino acid derived from guanidine. 1
Arrhythmia is an irregular heartbeat either in time or force. A normal heart rate is 50 to 100 beats per minute. Arrhythmias can be caused by many different factors including coronary heart disease, electrolyte imbalances, and injury from a heart attack.
A complex process of thickening and narrowing of the arterial walls caused by the accumulation of lipids, primarily oxidized cholesterol in the inner layer in combination with connective tissue and calcification. 2
A carotenoid found in dark green and dark yellow vegetables and fruit. 1
A measure of body fat that is the ratio of the weight of the body in kilograms to the square of its height in meters a body mass index in adults of 25 to 29.9 is considered an indication of overweight, and 30 or more an indication of obesity>—abbreviation BMI; called also Quetelet indexOverweight is defined as a body mass index of 25.0 to less than 30.0 and obesity is defined as a BMI of 30.0 or greater. 1
The most abundant mineral in the body – 99% of the calcium exists in bones and teeth and is commonly found in dairy foods, dark leafy greens and canned salmon - symbol Ca. 2
A unit equivalent to the large calorie expressing heat-producing or energy-producing value in food when oxidized in the body. 1
Any of various usually yellow to red pigments (as carotenes) found widely in plants and animals. 1
Present in animal cells and body fluids that regulate membrane fluidity, functions as a precursor molecule in various metabolic pathways, and as a constituent of LDL may cause arteriosclerosis. 1
High blood cholesterol is a risk factor in the development of coronary heart disease. Most of the cholesterol that is found in the blood is manufactured by the body, in the liver, at a rate of about 800 to 1,500 milligrams a day. By comparison, the average American consumes 300 to 450 milligrams daily in foods. Blood cholesterol is divided into three separate classes of lipoproteins: very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL); low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which contains most of the cholesterol found in the blood; and high-density lipoprotein (HDL).
A common reddish metallic element that is ductile and malleable and one of the best conductors of heat and electricity—symbol Cu. 1
A condition and especially one caused by atherosclerosis that reduces the blood flow through the coronary arteries to the heart muscle and typically results in chest pain or heart damage—called also coronary disease, coronary heart disease. 1
A variable disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by a combination of hereditary and environmental factors and usually characterized by inadequate secretion or utilization of insulin, by excessive urine production, by excessive amounts of sugar in the blood and urine, and by thirst, hunger, and loss of weight. 1
Fatty acids are generally classified as saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. In general, fats that contain a majority of saturated fatty acids are solid at room temperature, although some solid vegetable shortenings are up to 75 percent unsaturated. Fats containing mostly unsaturated fatty acids are usually liquid at room temperature and are called oils.
Mostly indigestible material in food that stimulates the intestine to peristalsis—called also bulk, dietary fiber, roughage. 1
Folate is a water-soluble B vitamin that helps produce and maintain new cells, make DNA and RNA, and make normal red blood cells. Folate is also helps to maintain normal levels of homocysteine. Folate food sources include leafy green vegetables, fruits, dried beans and peas. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires the addition of folic acid (the synthetic form of folate that is found in supplements and added to fortified foods) to enriched breads, cereals, flours, corn meals, pastas, rice, and other grain products.
A complex that is required for normal production of red blood cells, that is used especially in the treatment of nutritional anemias, and that occurs especially in green leafy vegetables, liver, kidneys, dried beans, and mushrooms—called also folacin, folate, Lactobacillus casei factor, pteroylglutamic acid. 1
An especially reactive atom or group of atoms; one that is produced in the body by natural biological processes or introduced from outside (as in tobacco smoke, toxins, or pollutants) and that can damage cells, proteins, and DNA by altering their chemical structure. 1
A measure of the rate at which an ingested food causes the level of glucose in the blood to rise the insulin response caused by carbohydrate depends on the glycemic index…of the food. 1
A lipoprotein of blood plasma that is composed of a high proportion of protein with little triglyceride and cholesterol and that is associated with decreased probability of developing atherosclerosis—called also alpha-lipoprotein, good cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein. 1
Hypercholesterolemia is excessive cholesterol in the blood. 1
Abnormally high arterial blood pressure that is usually indicated by an adult systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or greater or a diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or greater, is chiefly of unknown cause but may be attributable to a preexisting condition (as a renal or endocrine disorder), that typically results in a thickening and inelasticity of arterial walls and hypertrophy of the left heart ventricle, and that is a risk factor for various pathological conditions or events (as heart attack, heart failure and stroke. 1
Reduced sensitivity to insulin by the body's insulin-dependent processes (as glucose uptake, lipolysis, and inhibition of glucose production by the liver) that results in lowered activity of these processes or an increase in insulin production or both and that is typical of type 2 diabetes but often occurs in the absence of diabetesaction of the insulin hormone. 1
Is the most used of metals, and is vital to biological processes (as in transport of oxygen in the body)—symbol Fe. 1
Lipoproteins are a substance that carries cholesterol in the blood. Just like oil and water, cholesterol, which is fatty, and blood, which is watery, do not mix. In order to be able to travel in the bloodstream, the cholesterol made in the liver is combined with protein, making a lipoprotein. This lipoprotein then carries the cholesterol through the bloodstream. There are specific kinds of lipoproteins that contain cholesterol in your blood, and each affects your heart disease risk in a different way - LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglyceride.
A lipoprotein of blood plasma that is composed of a moderate proportion of protein with little triglyceride and a high proportion of cholesterol and that is associated with increased probability of developing atherosclerosis—called also bad cholesterol, beta-lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein. 1
Occurs in plants usually with carotenes and chlorophylls and in animal fat, egg yolk, and the corpus luteum. 1
Element that occurs abundantly in nature (as in bones and seeds and in the form of chlorophyll in the green parts of plants). 1
Manganese is a mineral associated with the formation of connective and skeletal tissues, growth and reproduction, and carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Manganese is mainly found in whole grains, legumes, nuts and tea.
Containing one double or triple bond per molecule - canola and olive oils are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids. 1
A member of the vitamin B complex occurring usually in the form of a complex of niacinamide in various animal and plant parts (as blood, liver, yeast, bran, and legumes). 1
Nitric oxide (NO) is made from the amino acid arginine. NO helps blood vessels relax, therefore controlling blood flow to tissues, and supplying oxygen to the cells that create energy in the body.
Physiological stress on the body that is caused by the cumulative damage done by free radicals inadequately neutralized by antioxidants and that is held to be associated with aging. 1
Element that occurs widely in combined form especially as inorganic phosphates in minerals, soils, natural waters, bones, and teeth and as organic phosphates in all living cells and that exists in several allotropic forms. 1
Biologically active, naturally occurring substances in plants that act as natural defense systems in and that show potential for reducing risk for cancer and cardiovascular disease. 2
Any of various sterols derived from plants. 1
An antioxidant phytochemical (as chlorogenic acid) that tends to neutralize the damaging effects of free radicals. 1
Having in each molecule many chemical bonds in which two or three pairs of electrons are shared by two atom. 1
Element of the alkali metal group that occurs abundantly in nature especially combined in minerals—symbol. 1
A member of the vitamin B complex -- called also lactoflavin, ovoflavin, vitamin B2. 1
The quality or state of being fed or gratified to or beyond capacity. 1
Being an organic compound having no double or triple bonds between carbon atoms. 1
An essential trace element found especially in grains and meat—symbol Se. 1
A silver white soft waxy ductile element of the alkali metal group that occurs abundantly in nature in combined form and is very active chemically—symbol Na. 1
A B-complex vitamin usually found in the germs of cereals and hulls of grain and in yeast and in animal tissues like liver, kidneys, and heart. 1
A fat containing trans-fatty acids. 1
A fat-soluble vitamin generally found in animal products (as egg yolk, milk, and butter) and especially in marine fish-liver oils (as of cod, halibut, and shark) and that is used in various forms in medicine and nutrition—called also retinol, vitamin A1. 1
A complex compound found in animal products (as meat and eggs) that is essential to normal blood formation, neural function, and growth and is used especially in treating pernicious and related anemias and in animal feed as a growth factor—called also cyanocobalamin. 1
Pyridoxine or a closely related compound found widely in combined form and considered essential to vertebrate nutrition. 1
A water-soluble vitamin found in plants and especially in fruits and leafy vegetables or made synthetically and used in the prevention and treatment of scurvy and as an antioxidant for foods—called also ascorbic acid. 1
Any of several fat-soluble vitamins that are chemically tocopherols or tocotrienols whose lack in the human body is associated especially with neurological symptoms (as ataxia and muscle weakness), that are found especially in wheat germ, vegetable oils, egg yolk, and green leafy vegetables or are made synthetically, and that are used chiefly in animal feeds and as antioxidants. 1
Either of two naturally occurring fat-soluble vitamins that are essential for the clotting of blood because of their role in the production of prothrombin in the liver and that are used in preventing and treating hypoprothrombinemia and hemorrhage. 1
A carotenoid alcohol that is isomeric with lutein and occurs widely with it and that is the chief pigment of yellow Indian corn. 1
A bluish white crystalline bivalent metallic element of low to intermediate hardness that is an essential micronutrient for both plants and animals—symbol Zn. 1
2. Mahan, Kathleen, and Escott-Stump, Sylvia. Krause’s Food, Nutrition & Diet Therapy. 10th edition. Philadelphia. 2000.